Sprint Review Timing – Article by Mike Caspar

Another great article by Mike Caspar: Consider the ability of your Stakeholders to come to your Sprint Review or Demo before declaring it.  From the article:

If you are in an environment that is struggling to get stakeholders to your review, ask yourself if you have chosen an impossible day of the week for this ceremony.

Please, for the sake of your team(s)….

When considering when your Sprint will end,
think of the ability of your stakeholders
to actually show up once in a while!

Stakeholders are people too. They don’t want to let the team down either.

(Emphasis added.)

Mike has great experience working with Scrum teams and I hope you read through his other articles as well.

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The Real Agility Program – Execution and Delivery Teams

In a recent post, Mishkin outlined the Leadership Team component of the Real Agility Program.  While the Leadership Team track focuses on developing leadership capacity for sustained transformation, The Execution track focuses on launching and developing high-performance project, product and operational teams.  This track is the one that most of our clients use when they run Agile pilot programs and is a critical component of getting quick wins for the organization.

Groundbreaking works such as The Wisdom of Teams (Katzenbach & Smith), The Five Dysfunctions of a Team (Lencioni) and Drive (Pink) have served well to distill the essential requirements of high-performance teams.  Scrum, Kanban, and OpenAgile are proven frameworks that optimize the value of teams and create the necessary working agreements to help teams reach that high-performance state.

The Delivery Team track of the Real Agility Program creates new, cross-functional, multi-skilled, staff-level teams of willing individuals.  These teams are responsible for delivering value—business results and quality.  Individuals are committed to the performance of the team and the organization.  Teams develop the capacity to self-organize and focus on continuous improvement and learning.  A team is usually composed of people from various roles at the delivery level.  For example, and IT project team might be composed of people whose previous* roles were:

  1. Project manager
  2. Business analyst
  3. Software developer
  4. Tester
  5. Database developer
  6. Team lead
  7. User experience lead
  8. Intern

* These roles do not get carried into the new delivery team other than as a set of skills.

The track begins with establishing pre-conditions for success including executive sponsorship, availability of team members and management support.  Team launch involves a series of on-the-job team development workshops designed to enable the teams to create their own set of values, working agreements and high-performance goals.  Teams are guided in the creation of their initial work backlogs, defining “done”, estimation and planning and self-awareness through the use of a collaborative skills matrix.  The teams are also assisted in setting up collocated team rooms and other tools to optimize communication and productivity.

Qualified coaches assist the teams to overcome common issues such as personal commitment, initial discomfort with physical colocation, communication challenges of working with new people in a new way, management interference and disruptions and appropriate allocation of authority.  This assistance is delivered on a regular schedule as the team progresses through a series of steps in the Execution track process.  Usually, these steps take one or two weeks each, but sometimes they take longer.  A team that needs to get to a high-performance state quickly might go through the entire program in 10 or 12 weeks.  In an organization where there is not the same urgency, it can take up to a year to get through the steps of the track.

The coaches for this Execution track also help management to resist and overcome the strong urge to manage the problems of the teams for them.  In order to develop through the stages of team development, teams need to be effectively guided and encouraged to solve their own problems and chart their own courses towards high-performance.

The goal of the Execution track of the Real Agility Program is to help the team go through the stages of forming-storming-norming and set them up to succeed in becoming a high-performance team.  Of course, to do this requires some investment of time.  Although the Execution track is meant to be done as on-the-job coaching, there is a 5% to 20% level of overhead related to the Real Agility Program materials themselves.

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Great little presentation on Retrospectives… and a bonus download!

If you are a ScrumMaster or Coach or Project Manager or Process Facilitator of any kind, I encourage you to become a master of Retrospectives.  I just happened upon this great little set of slides and presentation notes about Retrospectives by a couple of people, Sean Yo and Matthew Campbell, done a couple months ago.  Very helpful with some practical information, some great links… I strongly recommend checking it out.  My only concern is that they limit the scope of retrospectives too much.  I have a list of topics that I think can and should be considered in a retrospective:

  • Technology / tools
  • Work space / physical environment
  • Corporate culture
  • Corporate standards and policies
  • Teamwork
  • Work planning and execution
  • Skill sets
  • Interpersonal dynamics
  • External groups
  • Personal circumstances and needs
  • The process you are using

 

This list comes from a presentation I used to include as part of my Certified ScrumMaster course.  (Now, in my course I teach three specific methods of doing retrospectives as part of an in-depth simulation exercise.)  Here is a PDF version of the Retrospectives Module.

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Back to the Basics: Coding and TDD

I’ve been working for the past year on building the Scrum Team Assessment (yes, you can still go get it for your team :-) ).  I’ve been doing all the work on it personally and it has been great fun.  The best part of it has been that I’m back into coding.  And, with that, of course I have had to take my own advice about Test-Driven Development and the other Agile Engineering Practices.  But it hasn’t been easy!

I’m using PHP for the web front end, and Python with OpenERP for the back end.  My testing tools include Selenium for Acceptance Testing and PHPUnit for unit testing.  And… nothing yet for the Python back-end.  This is still a sore point with me.  Normally, I would find the back end TDD process easier… but OpenERP has been a HORRIBLE BEAST to use as a development platform.  Well, I might exaggerate a bit on that, because it is really just the complete lack of well-written API documentation and sample code.  Which is funny, because there are tons of open-source extensions for OpenERP written.  Anyway, I don’t want to complain about it too much, because in many other ways it is a fantastic platform and I wouldn’t easily switch it for anything else at this point.

Back to testing.  Last week, a client using the Scrum Team Assessment found a bug… and it was one of those ones that I know made them consider not using the tool anymore. Fortunately, our contact there has the patience of a Redwood, and is helping us through the process of fixing the system.  How did the bug happen?

Because I didn’t do _enough_ TDD.  I skimped.  I took shortcuts.  I didn’t use it for every single line of code written.

<Failure Bow>

The question for me now, is “why”?  Fortunately, the answer is simple to find… but solving it is not as easy as I would like.  I didn’t follow my own advice because I was learning about too many things at the same time.  Here’s what I was learning all at once over a three week period in December when I was doing the real heads-down development work:

  1. PHP and PHPUnit
  2. Python
  3. OpenERP (APIs for persistence and business logic)
  4. RML (a report generation language)
  5. Amazon EC2, RDS and Route 53
  6. Some Ubuntu sys admin stuff
  7. VMWare Fusion and using VMs to create a dev environment
  8. Postgresql database migration
  9. Oh, and refreshing on Selenium

Like I said, FUN!  But, a bit overwhelming for someone who hasn’t done any significant development work since 2006-ish.  As well, because of learning about so many things, I also didn’t have a good setup for my development, testing and production environments.  Now I have to clean up.  Finally, I also forgot about another important Agile Engineering practice that is used when you have lots of intense learning: the Architectural Spike.

I have to make sure that I take all that I’ve learned and create a truly good dev and test environment (because that was a huge hinderance to my work with both Selenium and PHPUnit).  And I have to take the time to learn to do the testing in Python (I would love suggestions on a good unit test framework)… and go back over that code, even though most of it is simply declarative of data structures, and make sure it is well-covered by unit tests.  Ideally, I might even consider throwing some code away and starting from scratch.  One possibility I’ve considered is to get rid of PHP entirely and build the whole system with Python (I’d love some thoughts on that too!)

Why am I doing all this?  Well, I really think that the Scrum Team Assessment is an awesome tool for teams that maybe can’t afford a full-time coach.  It certainly isn’t a complete replacement, but I’ve poured my knowledge and experience into it in the hopes that it can help a bunch of people out there do Scrum better… and more importantly, create great teams that produce awesome business results and where people love to come to work every day.

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Updated: Agile Estimation with the Bucket System

I have added a pdf download of this article about Agile Estimation with the Bucket System.  It’s just a handy, nicely-formatted document that can be used for quick reference.  It is now part of the materials I give out for my Certified ScrumMaster training classes.

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Updated: Planning Game for Agile Estimation

I’ve made a minor update to my article about Agile Estimation with the Planning Game to include a downloadable pdf of the article for easy printing.  The downloadable version also includes a tiny bit of commentary that comes from my upcoming Agile Advice book.  There are also two links added at the end of the article.  One is the the wikipedia article about Planning Poker (which describes the method slightly differently), and the other is to an article I wrote a long time ago about the wideband delphi estimation method.

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A Conference Call in Real Life (youtube)

I’ve started to show this video in my public CSM classes (see sidebar for scheduled courses) as part of the discussion about why co-location for Agile teams is so important.  The video is a humorous look at what conference calls are like.  Probably the most notable part of it is the fact that on a conference call you can’t see people’s body language and facial language which are important cues for efficient communication:

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User Stories and Story Splitting

In Scrum and other Agile methods, a common way to manage feature requests is with User Stories.  I’ve been teaching people about User Stories and doing workshops with teams for a long time.  Out of that work, I’ve created a very simple PDF User Stories and Story Splitting reference sheet that might be handy.  Please feel free to download it and share it.  This document is something that I explain in-depth in my Certified Scrum Product Owner training seminars.

There are a number of sites out there that include some details that are left out of the reference.  Please see, for example, “Patterns for Splitting User Stories” by Richard Lawrence.  See also the great foundational article on “INVEST in Good Stories” by Bill Wake.

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Announcement: Agile Coaching Patterns Wiki

Coaches for Agile teams and organizations is a growing profession.  I’ve been coaching for a long time, and I’ve used/invented/learned-about many different techniques or interventions for coaching in the context of Agile teams.  I have recently started a Wiki to capture some of this information.  (Originally, I was hoping to write a book, but I don’t have the time to do it on my own or even to coordinate a multi-author effort.)  This is an open invitation to participate in the wiki.  I won’t make it fully open (like wikipedia), instead, it will be by invitation.  Connect with me on LinkedIn and mention you would like to contribute, and I will set you up with an account… and then you can go nuts :-)  If there end up being several contributors, I’ll make a block on the front page for links to contributors and/or their organizations.

Check out the Agile Coaching Patterns wiki.

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The Scrum Team Assessment – Official Launch

Hi Everyone,  I don’t do announcements on here too often, but I wanted to let everyone know about the official launch of our new product: the Scrum Team Assessment – an online tool for your team to get a report on how well they are using the Scrum framework… and most importantly, helpful recommendations on how to improve!  This is a fully automated Scrum maturity assessment tool!

The Scrum Team Assessment is based on the years that I and two other coaches (Paul Heidema and Travis Birch) have been working with Scrum and Agile teams to improve business and technical results.  The Scrum Team Assessment is a joint effort that has resulted in a fully automated virtual coach for your team.

The analysis is both statistical and expert-system based.  This means that the report has basic information about how the team is following Scrum, and, more importantly, clear how-to advice to get your team to make improvements.  There are “quick wins” which are easy but will have a significant impact as well as long-term recommendations that are often harder, but will drive your team to a high-performance state.

The Scrum Team Assessment includes a survey of about 100 questions that focus on seven broad categories:

  • The team’s environment
  • The basic Scrum process
  • The Product Backlog
  • Team Membership
  • ScrumMastering
  • Product Ownership
  • and Agile best practices

Every team member fills in the survey to help us generate a valid set of recommendations.

The Scrum Team Assessment is $496/team/use (that’s Canadian dollars).  If you have several teams or wish to obtain an enterprise license, please contact us at sales@berteigconsulting.com or +1-905-868-9995.

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Announcement: The Scrum Team Assessment

Over the past six months we have been working hard on launching a new product: The Scrum Team Assessment.  This tool delivers to you a valuable report full of practical advice on how your team can get better at Scrum… and deliver better results!  It’s like an automated Scrum coach.  All your team members will fill in a comprehensive survey, we collect the results, generate a report – and then we personally review it – and send it back to you.

For more information, please visit our Scrum Team Assessment site.

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Agile Estimation with the Bucket System

Estimation – The Bucket System [pdf] – printable reference version of this article.

The “Bucket System” is a way to do estimation of large numbers of items with a small to medium sized group of people, and to do it quickly.  The Bucket System has the following qualities which make it particularly suitable for use in Agile environments:

  • It’s fast!  A couple hundred items can be estimated in as little time as one hour.
  • It’s collaborative.  Everyone in a group participates roughly equally.
  • It provides relative results not absolute estimates (points vs. hours).
  • The results are not traceable to individuals and so it encourages group accountability.
  • Works with teams to estimate effort or with stakeholders to estimate value.

BucketSystem3

The Bucket System of estimation works as follows:

  1. Set up the physical environment as per the diagram below.  Ensure that all the items to be estimated are written on cards.
  2. Choose an item at random from the collection.  Read it to the group.  Place it in the “8″ bucket.  This item is our first reference item.
  3. Choose another item at random from the collection.  Read it to the group.  The group discusses its relative position on the scale.  Once consensus has been reached, put the item in the appropriate bucket.
  4. Choose a third item at random and, after discussion and consensus is reached, place it in the appropriate bucket.
  5. If the random items have clearly skewed the scale towards one end or the other, re-scale the items (e.g. if the first item is actually very small and should be in the “1″ bucket).
  6. Divide and conquer.  Allocate all the remaining items equally to all the participants.  Each participant places items on the scale without discussion with other participants.   If a person has an item that they truly do not understand, then that item can be offered to someone else.
  7. Sanity check!  Everyone quietly reviews the items on the scale.  If a participant finds an item that they believe is out of place, they are welcome to bring it to the attention of the group.  The group then discusses it until consensus is reached and it is placed in one of the buckets.
  8. Write the bucket numbers on the cards so that the estimates are recorded.

Bucket SystemSome important points to consider:

  • Multiple items can be in the same bucket.
  • Items cannot be placed “between” buckets to represent a more precise estimate.
  • If the distribution of the items is skewed to either end of the scale, then during the sanity check step the group should also discuss if the items can and should be spread out more evenly along the scale.  If so, then the group does it collectively.
  • The facilitator should watch to make sure that no one moves items that have already been placed until the “sanity check” step.
  • The division of items among participants does not need to be exactly equal – don’t worry about “dealing” out the items.  Instead, just divide them up roughly.
  • If the “divide and conquer” stage has one or two people working very slowly through their items, it is acceptable to suggest that they share their remaining items with people who are already finished.
  • It is not acceptable for an individual to completely abstain from the process.  If someone desires to abstain, they should be counselled that this means they will not have any future say in the estimates.
  • During the “divide and conquer” stage it is critical that absolute silence is maintained.  In particular, there should be no bilateral discussion of items.  This is to protect the anonymity of individuals placing items as much as possible.

The Bucket System

 

The bucket system is a good alternative estimation method to try instead of Planning Poker.  It is much faster than Planning Poker and still gets reasonable results.

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Leaving your title at the Scrum team room door and pick up new skills!

Each member of an organization has a title or designation that may reflect their responsibilities or profession.  These titles may include BA, Tester, Developer, QA, PM, and others.  It is normal to be proud of our accomplishments, achievements and titles.  Unfortunately in a Scrum team these titles can limit the individual and adversely effect the team.  These same titles can label the individual as that role (example – as a tester) and only that role.  Within a Scrum team we certainly need the skills, knowledge and abilities that come with that title/role, but we do not want to limit that person to being viewed as only that role.  Each of us is the sum total of our experience, education, values, upbringing and history.  All of this is of value to the team.  We should encourage every member to fully participate on the team, to willingly share their expertise, to contribute to non-traditional tasks and to feel they are valued as a complete person rather than a specifically titled individual.   So if the goal is to leave your title behind, then it is implied you can also pick up other skills.
So how can this be accomplished.  One way is a Skills Matrix.   This is a chart that can be posted in the room to identify the skills needed and the people on the team.   On the left column you list all the team members.  Along the top you list all the various skills you need on the team.  Then each person reviews their row, looking at each skill, and then identifies how many quadrants of each circle they can fill in, based on the range below the chart.  The range is from no skills through to teach all skills in a given column.  After filling the columns and rows, now the work begins.  By using pair programming (an extreme programming method) and other methods like self-study and taking additional courses, the team member can begin to learn other skills.  The objective is to have at least two persons on each team who possess each of the skills at the level of performing all the tasks of a specific skill.  The goal is not to have every one do everything but to have a least enough people with specific skills to cover sicknesses and vacations so that required tasks are performed.  This is a method to capture the full extend of each person’s current knowledge, skills and abilities and expand on it.
Skills Matrix
Since they are hard to see, here are the labels for the number of quadrants:
0: no skill
1: basic knowledge
2: perform basic tasks
3: perform all tasks (expert)
4: teach all tasks
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A story about Acceptance Criteria and a medical procedure to help your Agile team

The following story is designed to help get your teams thinking about the topic from the “How can we learn this together” approach.
There are many detailed books with different points of view about acceptance testing.  I created this story as a way for teams to discuss this in a common language and figure out what works for them.

While you read this, I hope you see many similarities to the Agile Frameworks of your choice.  Perhaps quizzing your team on how many they find might be fun? (a different topic).

Please don’t give me a hard time about the medical inconsistencies.  I’m not a doctor and don’t have a medical degree.  It’s just a story and is completely fictional.

Fade in…..  The patient walks into a moderately lit room with an uncomfortable black chair that looks like it’s 20 years old, sitting next to a medical examination table.  The patient sits on the little black chair to discover it also feels that way.  He is going to be the patient for a long series of medical procedures to solve some medical problems.  The patient knows it will take many surgeries to get to where he wants to be.

Surgeon: So, we’re going to remove your appendix this week.  The team is anxious to get rolling.

Patient : I’m pretty nervous.  I don’t really know what to expect and I know I have all these other operations that need to get done for me to be totally healthy.

Surgeon : Don’t worry.  We have a really good team.  We also want to make sure you are 100% satisfied with the work we do.  We know that you want to get some cosmetic work done in the future and you have other important surgeries to do, but for now, let’s focus on the appendix removal, OK ?

Patient : Sure

Surgeon : We want to make sure we have a common understanding of what you want from us.  So, we’re going to ask you a few questions OK ?…Can I get the team in here ?

Patient : Sounds good.

(introductions).

Surgeon : Well, for this to be considered a successful operation, what kind of things are you looking for?  I already know, that to me at least, successful means two things.  1- The appendix is out and 2 – you don’t die during the surgery.  Well, actually, the not dying part is part of every surgery we’ll do for you.  We’ll assume that every surgery needs you to live.

Patient : I’m glad you said that!!! Phew.. I feel better already.  And ya, I agree, it would really be a drag to do the surgery and not end up with the appendix out.  I agree with both of those things.

Surgeon : We need to put a caveat.  If we start and see that it’s impossible to finish for some other reason, we’re going to abort the surgery.  We won’t continue if we can’t be successful.

Patient : Yes, that makes sense.

Surgeon : So, we’re agreed then.  Let’s go ahead and get you prepped.

Anesthetist :  Not so fast, I need to speak.  We want to make sure you don’t have any allergic reactions.  Have you ever gone under?  Do you have any allergies ?

Patient : I’ve been under before, and have had no problems.

Anesthetist : Great.  Let me just record that on our surgery card.  We’ll need to know that we can make adjustments as we go if something bad happens.  Is that OK ?

Patient : Ya, whatever you need to do.. Go ahead and switch to another chemical if you need to.  I’ll be happy if you don’t kill me and you’ve done what you can if you notice an allergic reaction.

Patient : Since I’m on the topic, I would like to have a very small scar and not a big one. I am willing to pay extra for a smaller scar and therefore, for me, I won’t be happy unless the scar is small.

Surgeon : Well, that will make the operation harder and we might need to put off some work where we were prepping for your next surgery until a future date. The reason is that you can only be under a limited amount of time.  It won’t cost you more because the price of the surgery is fixed.  You might have to give something else up later.  Can you live with that ?

Patient : Yes, if I have a big scar, I won’t be happy. I am willing to pay the extra over the long run and maybe I’ll have something less done later.  I really don’t want big scars as we move forward.

Surgical Resident :  Hold on, that’s way too subjective.. What might be big to you could actually be a really small scar.  What does a small scar mean?

Here are some examples.  Which on of these is considered small enough for you?

(shows a batch of photos).

Patient : I’d like it to be at least this small.  (picks one).

Surgical Resident : OK, the scar will be under 30 CM in length and 1 CM in width.  Does everyone feel we can do this and this?

Everyone : Yes

Surgeon : Anything else?

Patient and the rest of the team : No.

Surgeon : Well, then, we’re a go.  Now that we all know what will be considered acceptable and a sign of success, let’s get prepped tomorrow morning first thing…

Fade out…

Fade in.. .the day of the surgery…. (beginning of the Sprint)… the patient is rolled in…

Doctor : OK team, let’s quickly review our acceptance criteria… Patient Alive, deal with allergic reaction and the patient expects a scar of under 30 CM and 1 CM in side.  I expect everyone on the team to help me make sure we meet these requirements.  Can everyone agree before I cut?

Team : Yes.

(Surgery is moving forward)

Surgical Resident : Doctor, if you do that just a little differently, perhaps you will be able to shave a few millimeters off the size of the scar.  What do you think ?

Surgeon : Great idea.. Thanks for that.  Why don’t you hold onto the medical gizmo while I do the next cut. Sure, that will make it easier for both of us to do this together.

Anesthetist : Hey guys, hold on, let’s just talk about this.  if you do that, his blood pressure will go up and you risk killing him.

Surgeon : Wow, thanks. I doubt we would kill him, but we’d probably have to do some extreme surgery which would definitely give him a huge scar. Let’s think about this.

(discussion takes place)

Team : Glad we figured out how to do that. We can safely do that without causing any risks to the patient in the future.  Let’s go for it…

(surgery continues)

Surgical Resident :  Hey Doc, we’re almost half way through the time for the drugs and allocated time for the surgery.  Can we all agree about how much work is left so we don’t keep him under too long ?  OK, we have about another 2 hours of work do here. We’re still good.  No need to worry.  Let’s update the surgical status board to say “surgery progressing appropriately” so his family knows everything is on track.

(surgery continues).

Surgeon : OK, let’s finish up.  Anything missing ?

Surgical Resident : Yes, don’t forget to take out that sponge.

Surgeon and Anesthetist :  Yikes!

Surgeon : Thanks for catching that.

Anesthetist : No kidding.  That wouldn’t be very professional and people probably wouldn’t think we’re very good at what we did if we left stuff undone and had to come back and fix it later.

(surgery is finished successfully and the patient gets rolled out).

… fade out

… fade in….   patient in recovery and the team comes to check on him.

Surgeon : So, the surgery went really well.   You’re obviously alive, your appendix is gone.  Only one last thing…..

(the doctor removes the bandage and shows the patient the size of the scar).

Patient : Wow, that’s exactly what I asked you for.  It hurts a lot, is that normal? I wasn’t expecting that!

Surgeon : Yes, that’s normal.  Once the swelling goes down, it will be even smaller.

Patient : Thanks Doc.

Surgeon : Thanks to the team. Everyone really worked hard to make this happen.

Patient : Ya, thanks team.

Surgeon : Oh, by the way, we had to correct an adhesion we discovered while working.  Not to worry, we didn’t charge you extra.  We charge for the amount of time we spend doing the surgery.  We just fixed it while we were in the area.  (yes, I can see the malpractice lawyers cringing.. this is just a story).  We knew it wouldn’t extend the amount of time for the surgery and we knew you would be happier with the results.

Patient : Thanks. The team is amazing!

Surgeon : Is there anything you didn’t like or any special comments you’d like to give the team for the next surgery?

Patient : Ya, I wish you would have warned me about how much it would hurt.

Surgeon (whole team nods) : Thanks for that.  We’ll consider that in the future.

…. fade out ….

… fade in ….   Medical Team room.

Surgeon : Well, that went very well.. any comments about what could have gone better?

(some discussion happens).

Surgeon :  Great, we’re agreed then.  For the next surgery and all the ones we do in the future, let’s have an open discussion with the patient ahead of time about the expected amount of pain so it doesn’t cause them alarm when they come out of surgery. It will be a better experience for them and improve our professionalism.

…. fade out….

Mike Caspar

 

 

 

 

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The Planning Game – An Estimation Method for Agile Teams

The Planning Game [PDF] – printable reference.

Purpose: estimate the effort for User Stories (Product Backlog Items, Value Drivers)

Prerequisites: all items have a value estimate, each item is written on a separate note card, full team membership is known and available for planning, each team member has a set of planning game cards

Process:

  1. The team goes through all the items and chooses the one which has the lowest effort. Write the number “2″ on this card (usually in the bottom right corner).
  2. The team looks at the item with the highest value.
  3. Each team member thinks about how much effort the team will expend to fully complete all the work for the item. Comparing this work to the work effort for the smallest item, each team member selects a card that represents this relative effort. For example, if you think that it requires ten times the effort, you would select the “20″ card. It is not permissible to select two cards.
  4. Each team member places their selected card, face down, on the table. Once all team members have done this, turn the cards over.
  5. If all team members show the same value, then write the value on the item and go back to step three for the next item. (Or if there are no more items, then the process is complete.)
  6. The person with the highest and the lowest value cards both briefly explain why they voted the way they did. If there is a Product Owner present, this person can add any clarifications about the item.
  7. For any given item, if a person is highest or lowest more than once, then each explanation must include new information or reasoning.
  8. Once explanations are complete, the team members collect their cards and go back to step three.

Notes:
- it is extremely important that the voting for an item continues until all team members unanimously vote the same way (this way team members and outside stakeholders cannot blame any individual for “wrong” estimates)
- in Scrum, it is normal for the Product Owner to be present during this process, but not to participate in the voting
- in OpenAgile, it is acceptable for people serving as Growth Facilitators for a team to participate in the voting
- voting should not include extensive discussion
- if more than one person has the lowest or highest vote, usually just one person shares their reason in order to help the process move quickly
- the first few items will often take 10 or 15 rounds of voting before the team arrives at a unanimous vote
- later on, items may take just one or two rounds of voting to arrive at a unanimous decision
- some teams, where trust levels are high, will discard with the use of physical cards and just briefly discuss votes

The planning game is used at the start of a project with the full list of user stories. In this case, it is reasonable to expect the team to average two minutes per user story, and an appropriate amount of time needs to be set aside to accommodate going through the whole list.

The Planning Game is also used any time that there is a change in the list of user stories: re-ordering, adding or removing user stories, or changes to a single user story. When such a change happens, the team can re-estimate any user story in the whole list. When starting a Cycle or Sprint or Iteration, all the user stories in the list should have up-to-date estimates so that estimation work is avoided in the Cycle planning meeting.

Finally, the team can decide to re-estimate any user stories at any time for any reason. However, it is important for team members to remember that estimation is non-value-added work and the time spent on it should be minimized.

NOTE: The Planning Game is described as Planning Poker on wikipedia.  The version described there has some minor variations from this version.

A closely related method of Agile Estimation is the Bucket System.

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