Tag Archives: lean

Assessing an Organization for an Agile Transformation Plan

Myself, Paul Heidema and a few other people we work with have now participated in several assessments of organizations who are either looking at adopting agile methods or improving existing use of agile methods. We have developed several tools for running these assessments. The following things are critical to the assessment process and the results we get:

Culture

The success of an agile transformation is primarily driven by connection that transformation makes with the existing culture of the organization. We know that doing an agile transformation includes cultural changes. The critical piece is understanding the culture so that you can determine what in the culture supports agility and what in the culture is going to hinder agility. A culture that focuses on individual accomplishment and freedom will not support agility well, while a culture that supports doing the best possible thing for customers will support agility. Of course, any given organization will have a mix of cultural aspects that both support and hinder agility. There are a number of methods for examining culture including an excellent corporate culture workshop described in the book “The Corporate Culture Survival Guide” by Edgar Schein.

Value Stream Mapping

A high level value stream map is an excellent tool for identifying both an overall need for improvement by making the current state of affairs visible, as well as pinpointing where big improvements can be made quickly. More often than not, when we do an assessment for an organization, we are finding that the efficiency of their process is at about 20-30%… in other words, 70-80% of all effort is expended on wasteful activities. This level of waste is often surprising for stakeholders. And of course, making that level of waste visible is a large motivator for the kind of continuous improvement that agile methods such as OpenAgile and Scrum make possible.

Agile Practices

Of course, even if an organization is not doing agile officially, there are often existing practices that can be considered part of the overall umbrella of agile. A comprehensive assessment that rates a team’s or an organization’s level of use of agile practices gives a good picture at a very practical level of what things you can build upon. For change to be successful, a significant factor is to tie new practices to existing practices. This is a great way to do this. There are lots of lists available of agile practices. We publish one fairly comprehensive list of agile practices on the Berteig Consulting site (it’s near the bottom of the linked page).

There are of course many other things that are done during an assessment, but these three form an effective foundation for any agile transformation plan.


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Calculating a Budget for an Agile Project in Six Easy Steps

A former student of mine called the other day.  He asked a good question: how do you calculate the budget for a project if you are using an agile approach to delivery.  Here is the overview of the six steps to do this.  I will follow the overview with some detailed comments.

  1. Prepare and estimate the project requirements using Planning Poker
  2. Determine the team’s Velocity
  3. Using the team’s burn rate and velocity calculate the budget for the Iterations
  4. Add any capital costs
  5. Using the definition of “done” add pre- and post- Iteration budgets
  6. Apply a drag or fudge or risk factor to the overall estimate

Prepare and estimate the project requirements using Planning Poker

The project requirements have to be listed out in some order and then estimated.  If you are using Scrum as your agile approach, you will be creating a Product Backlog.  Extreme Programming and you will be creating user stories.  OpenAgile and you will be creating Value Drivers.  Kanban and you will have a backlog of work in progress.  Regardless of the agile approach you are using, in a project context you can estimate the work using the Planning Poker game.  Once you have your list, you need to get the team of people who will be working on the list to do the estimation.  Estimation for agile methods cannot be done by someone not on the team – this is considered invalid.  It’s like asking your work buddy to estimate how much time it will take to clean your own house and then telling your kids that they have to do it in that amount of time.  In other words, it’s unfair.  Planning Poker results in scores being assigned to each item of your list.  Those scores are not yet attached to time – they simply represent the relative effort of each of the items.  To connect the scores to time, we move to the next step…

Determine the team’s Velocity

The team needs to select its cycle (sprint, iteration) length.  For software projects, this is usually one or two weeks, and more rarely three or four weeks.  In other industries it may be substantially different.  I have seen cycles as short as 12 hours (24/7 mining environment) and as long as 3 months (volunteer community organization).  Once the duration of the cycle is determined, the team can use a simple method to estimate how much work they will accomplish in a cycle.  Looking at the list of work to be done, the team starts at the top item and gradually working their way down, decide what can fit (cumulatively) into their very first cycle.  Verbally, the conversation will go something like this:

“Can we all agree that we can fit the first item into our first cycle?”

– everyone responds “Yes”

“Let’s look at the second item.  Can we do the first item AND the second item in our first cycle?”

– a little discussion about what it might take to do the second item, and then everyone responds “Yes”

“Okay.  What about adding the third item?”

– more discussion, some initial concern, and finally everyone agrees that it too can fit

“How about adding the fourth item?”

– much more concern, with one individually clearly stating “I don’t think we can add it.”

“Okay.  Let’s stop with just the first three.”

Those items chosen in this way represent a certain number of points (you add up the scores from the Planning Poker game).  The number of points that the team thinks it can do in a cycle is referred to as its “Planning Velocity” or just “Velocity”.  With the velocity, we can then do one of the most important calculations in doing a budget…

Using the team’s burn rate and velocity calculate the budget for the Iterations

The team’s velocity is a proxy for how much work the team will get done in a cycle.  However, in order to understand a budget for the overall project, we need to take that estimate of the team’s output and divide it into the total amount of work.  Our list has scores on all the items.  Sum up the scores, then divide by the velocity to give you the number of cycles of work the team will need to complete the list.  For example, if after doing Planning Poker, the sum total of all the scores on all the items is 1000, and the team’s velocity is 50, then 1000 ÷ 50 = 20… This is the time budget for the team’s work to deliver these items.    To do dollar budgeting, you also need to know the team’s burn rate: how much does it cost to run the team for a cycle.  This is usually calculated based on the fully-loaded cost of a full-time-employee and you can often get this number from someone in finance or from a manager (sometimes you can figure it out from publicly available financial data).  In general, for knowledge workers, the fully-loaded cost of a full time employee is in the range of $100000/yr to $150000/yr.  Convert that to a per-cycle, per-person cost (e.g. $120000/yr ÷ 52 weeks/year x 2 weeks/cycle = $4615/person/cycle) and then multiply by the number of people on the team (e.g. $4615 x 7 people = $32305/cycle).  Finally, multiply the per-cycle cost by the number of cycles (e.g. $32305 x 20 cycles = $646100).

This is the budget for the part of the project done in the cycles by the agile team.   But of course, there are also other costs to be accounted.

Add any capital costs

Not many projects are solely labor costs.  Equipment purchases, supplies, tools, or larger items such as infrastructure, land or vehicles may all be required for your project.  Most agile methods do not provide specific guidance on how to account for these items since agile methods stem from software development where these costs tend to be minimal relative to labor costs.  However, as a Project Manager making a budget estimate, you need to check with the team (after the Planning Poker game) to determine if they know of any large purchases required for the completion of the project.  Be clear to them what you mean by “large” – in an agile environment, this is anything that has a cost similar to or more than the labor cost of a cycle (remember: agile projects should last at least several cycles so this is a relatively small percentage of the labor costs).  In the previous example calculation, the cost per cycle was $32305 so  you might ask them about any purchases that will be $30k or larger.  Add these to the project budget.

Using the definition of “done” add pre- and post- Iteration budgets

Every agile team is supposed to be “cross-functional” but in reality, there are limits to this.  For example, in most software project environments, teams do not include full-time lawyers.  This limited cross-functionality determines what the team is capable of delivering in each cycle – anything outside the team’s expertise is usually done as either pre-work or after the iterations (cycles) are finished.  Sometimes, this work can be done concurrently with the team.  In order to understand this work, it is often valuable to draw an organization-wide value stream map for project delivery.  This map will show you the proportion of time spent for each type of work in the project.  Subtract out all the work that will be done inside the agile team (their definition of “done”) and you are left with a proportion of work that must be done outside the agile team.  Based on the proportions found in the value stream map, add an appropriate amount of budget based on the project’s cycle labor costs.

Apply a drag or fudge or risk factor to the overall estimate

And of course, to come up with a final estimate, add some amount based on risk or uncertainty (never subtract!)  Generally speaking, before this step, your project budget is going to be +/- 20%-50% depending on how much you have used this approach in the past.  If you are familiar with it and have used it on a few projects, your team will be much better at understanding their initial velocity which is the foundation for much of the remaining budget estimates.  On the other hand, if you are using this method for the first time, there is a high degree of anxiety and uncertainty around the estimation process.  Please feel free to add a buffer that you feel is appropriate.  But again, never, ever, ever remove time or money from the budget at this last step.

Please let me know if you have any comments on how you have done this – tips, tricks or techniques are always welcome in the comments.

Thanks, Mishkin.


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Quick Reference: Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model

This model is good for people to consider when doing an Agile-Lean Transformation.  I use a process based on this model when working with clients, although the reality of work on the ground often means not following this model perfectly.  Without further ado, here is the model:

Step One: Create Urgency

What is the critical reason for change?  What is the “burning platform”?  What reason can people get behind emotionally for the pain of change?  Why are you considering agile and lean, and how is it urgent to use these methods?

Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition

I call this as the Agile-Lean Transformation Team.  These people are usually managers and executives who can make change happen by virtue of budgets and positional authority.  They help with training, coaching, team formation, ongoing assessment, planning etc.

Step Three: Create a Vision for Change

The coalition creates a strongly worded statement that helps everyone see how they fit into the change process and results.  Tie the use of Agile-Lean to the end result.

Step Four: Communicate the Vision

Constantly!  Every opportunity, repeat the statement, discuss its application and implication.  Use both formal and informal methods.  Share links to information about Agile and Lean, create an elevator pitch and use it constantly.

Step Five: Remove Obstacles

The coalition supports staff who are struggling with how to make the change real in practical terms.  For example, an agile team might want a proper team room.  The lack of such a room is an obstacle to be removed by the coalition.

Step Six: Create Short-Term Wins

Choose places to focus effort that will be successful pilot projects.  Make sure that successes are broadly communicated.

Step Seven: Build on the Change

Make sure to have a backlog of projects to do using Agile-Lean, and make sure that as you go you are improving your use of Agile-Lean.  It takes time to break down old habits.

Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture

Ensure that new staff are immediately and effectively educated on the use of Agile-Lean, and ensure that Agile-Lean continues to pervade the thinking and behavior of people throughout the organization (not just IT!!!).

(NOTE: this is based on the book “Leading Change” by Kotter, and a web page about this model.)


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Stonecutters, Paycheck Earners, or Cathedral Builders?

All credit for this is due to Mary Poppendieck as this is entirely cribbed from her Agile2007 talk on agile leadership.

A man walks into a quarry and sees three people with pickaxes. He walks up to the first one and asks, “What are you doing?” The first quarry worker irritably replies, “I’m cutting stone, what does it look like? I cut stone today, I cut stone yesterday, and I will cut stone tomorrow!” The man asks the same of the second person who replies, “I’m making a living for my family.” The man turns to the third person and asks him, “so what are you doing here?” The third worker looks up for a moment, looks back at the man with a proud expression and says, “I’m building a Cathedral!”

The moral of the parable is likely clear, but it bears applying to organizational dynamics. Basically, consider that everyone gets annoyed with aspects of their jobs. The question is one of response. Basically, if a person is annoyed with his job, does he:

  • Complain? He is probably a stonecutter.
  • Ignore it? He is probably a paycheque earner.
  • Fix it? He is a cathedral builder.

Cathedral builders are absolutely critical to a healthy organization. They push the organization towards a vision, often propagating the high-level vision throughout all levels of the organization. Unfortunately, these are also people who annoy the stonecutters and paycheque earners, because they won’t participate in the complaints, and they agitate for changes which make it hard to ignore things and just “do the job.” But your success will rely on them… find them, shelter them, and grow them. And whatever you do, don’t “promote” them into positions where they aren’t effective. Empower them, and if you need to add salary and title that’s fine, but let them find their own area of maximal contribution. Guaranteed you, Mr. business owner, aren’t smart enough to see what that is.

Organizations that fail to see this remain mediocre or failing organizations. Organizations that find ways of harnessing their workforce and coaxing people into the next level of engagement, succeed.


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Announcing: The Agile Clinic Service

Berteig Consulting with the help of some partners is now offering a new service called The Agile Clinic. This is not a typical coaching or training session. The entire clinic has a duration of just one day. During this day there are short 30 or 60 minute appointments made by managers, executives, and staff with two experienced agile coaches. These coaches listen to problems presented to them, consult, discover, facilitate, diagnose, and offer solutions. These appointments are designed to be intense and high-impact sessions. Visit www.agileclinic.com to see how this service can add great value and provide fantastic results to your company with a small time cost.


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Comprehensive List of Agile Practices

This might be impossible, but I was thinking that it would be cool to have a single reference of all the possible agile practices.  Obviously, since “agile” is not a single defined method, we must take the word “comprehensive” with a bit of humor (or a grain of salt).  I’ve attached a spreadsheet that represents my first draft (it’s in OpenOffice.org format so that you don’t have to worry about me spreading viruses – if you want it in MS Office format, email me at mishkin@berteigconsulting.com).  I’ve split the practices up into several sections including: “Agile Skeleton”, “Common Practices”, “Basic Scrum Practices”, “Optional Scrum Practices”, “Extreme Programming Practices” and “Lean Practices”.  I’ve stopped there because I’m not an expert on other agile methods such as Crystal, Agile Unified Process or Feature Driven Development.  I imagine that this list will be useful for teams to do self-assessment and to think about ways they might improve.  Perhaps it could be used in a retrospective setting.  Berteig Consulting coaches use something similar to this to assess the effectiveness of their engagement with clients.  If you think of practices I’ve missed or other potential uses for a list like this, let me know in the comments.  My intention is to convert this to a wiki and make it available under a Creative Commons license once it is a little more refined.

Agile Practices Adoption Worksheet (OpenOffice format – 68KB)

 


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Flow or Iterations – What Do You Try First?

There was an interesting discussion on the LeanAgileScrum Yahoo Group early in December regarding the difference between flow (lean) and iterations (agile) that caught my eye. I only just now have had the time to write about it.

Continue reading Flow or Iterations – What Do You Try First?


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Agile Blogs

There’s a great discussion on the Extreme Programming Yahoo! group where a whole bunch of folks list their blogs out. If you aren’t part of the group, you should probably join it (it focuses on technical practices, and there’s lots of other good agile stuff there too). The discussion starts with a message from James Carr where he asks who else here blogs?

It’s probably still cool to jump in with your own blog link if you have an agile-focused blog (I’m sure Scrum, Lean and other agile methods would be welcome even though it’s an extreme programming list!)


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Patterns of Agile Adoption by Mike Cohn

Mike Cohn has written an excellent article that covers a number of different options that can be taken when someone in an organization desires to implement an agile method.  These Patterns of Agile Adoptions are described as three sets of contrasting options:

  1. Start Small vs. Go All In
  2. Technical Practices First vs. Iterations First
  3. Stealth Mode vs. Public Display

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Backlogs in an Organization – Levels of Queues

Queues of work form at three types of levels in an agile organization.

At the largest level is the project portfolio. The queue for this level contains all the projects that are not yet being actively worked upon by project teams.

At the intermediate level is the backlog of project functionality. The queue for this level contains packages of business function or infrastructure components necessary to implement business function. These packages are selected by a project team to fit into a single iteration.

The packages in turn are also elements in a queue. This smallest level of queue contains individual tasks required to implement all the business function and infrastructure that make up a selected package of work. The team members select tasks off this queue based on priority and dependencies.

In many agile methods, the queue management approach is fairly explicit at the intermediate and small levels. However, very little is said about the largest level. Some organizations have solved this by limiting the size of projects:

To be successful, high-tech CIOs recommend biting off projects in small chunks…. Gregoire notes that Dell is growing so fast that at the end of an 18-month project, the company would be significantly different from when it began. “A project has to take less than six months [to complete]. That’s the only way we can make sure [it stays] with the business,” he says. (http://www.cio.com/archive/120198/tech.html)


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