Tag Archives: scrum guide

Mastering Soft Skills as a Scrum Master

We may not normally think of a Scrum Master in the same breath as mastering soft skills, but a recent discussion with peers lead me to consider this.

In 2017, Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland sought to update the Scrum Values document, and together in a video they discussed the changes they were making. They talked at some length about the Scrum Master role. To quote Schwaber,“It’s a very tough job.”

The 2018 Scrum Guide states:“The Scrum Master is responsible for promoting and supporting Scrum as defined in the Scrum Guide.” An extensive list of the Scrum Master’s responsibilities follow in the guide.

In short, the Scrum Master (SM) serves the Product Owner, the Development Team, and the Organization. All of this involves facilitating Scrum events, coaching and educating, removing impediments, and much more. It is safe to say that successfully undertaking those relational interactions requires good people-oriented behaviours, or soft skills.

In recent conversation, a colleague categorically stated that a good Scrum Master must understand 4 things: the business s/he works in, the technology s/he works with, Agile and Scrum principles, and, most importantly, people! Based on his experience, he was adamant that when people are trained to become Scrum Masters, certification is not enough – soft skills should be part and parcel of their training!

How can some of these soft skills be taught?

The Role of the Certified Scrum Trainer

Not all Certified Scrum Trainers have soft skills training or behaviours under their belts. However, the first thing a CST can do is modelsoft skills in his/her training. That means s/he will treat the attendees with respect; s/he will be clear about the goals of training; s/he will listen and be attentive to attendees questions and concerns; s/he will create a safe learning environment; s/he will be honest and trustworthy. Modelling these behaviours is one way a CST can teach without words.

But in two days, is role-modelling enough? Let’s look at the Scrum Guide for clues. When the values of commitment, courage, focus, openness and respect are embodied and lived by the Scrum Team, the Scrum pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation come to life and buildtrust for everyone.” http://www.scrumguides.org/scrum-guide

To what degree are these values discussed in training? What does “courage” or “openness” look like? It seems to me that in-depth discussion with examples/activitiesof each of those values would go some way in teaching soft skills.

Soft Skills Training for Scrum Masters

Two CST’s I know invited an Agile Team Developer into their CSM classes to give a half-hour workshop on soft skills. This is a very brief time to be effective, but it provided a taste of listening skillscreativity, risk-taking, etc.

The following is from an article I previously published in Agile Advice: Everyone has the potential to grow their soft skills. However, a company may not have the resources to help unlock this potential in its employees.

If team development is not part of a company’s culture there may be discomfort in dealing with friction arising from a lack of soft skills. In this case, an external facilitator or coach can be a very helpful resource to guide a work team, using thought-provoking activities and role-playing, to find greater connection and trust amongst themselves, and to address issues with a detached point of view.” http://www.agileadvice.com/2017/05/29/scrum-team-improvement/soft-skills-revolution-may-want-team-development/

Scrum Masters can and should be offered at the very least a one-day training by a good coach/ facilitator.

Scrum Masters can be guided through specific exercises that help them understand and practice the skills of openness, courage, respect, commitment, and focus (the Scrum Values), as well as the practice of compassion, communication, creativity, listening, building trust, and so on.

This video called “Agile and Scrum Soft Skills Needed to Drive Process Success” can provide some further helpful guidance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owa1fftIfzA

As a Scrum Master, do you feel you would benefit from soft skills training?


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The New Scrum Guide: The 5 Scrum Values

Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland have just announced the new version of the Scrum Guide!  The only change is the addition of two paragraphs about the five Scrum values:

When the values of commitment, courage, focus, openness and respect are embodied and lived by the Scrum Team, the Scrum pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation come to life and builds trust for everyone. The Scrum Team members learn and explore those values as they work with the Scrum events, roles and artifacts.

Successful use of Scrum depends on people becoming more proficient in living these five values. People personally commit to achieving the goals of the Scrum Team. The Scrum Team members have courage to do the right thing and work on tough problems. Everyone focuses on the work of the Sprint and the goals of the Scrum Team. The Scrum Team and its stakeholders agree to be open about all the work and the challenges with performing the work. Scrum Team members respect each other to be capable, independent people.

The Scrum Guide is the sole and official definition of Scrum.


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Pitfall of Scrum: Cancelled Sprint – Failure to Restart

Although a cancelled Sprint is rare, it can be tempting to try and wait until everything is “perfect” or “ready” before re-starting. Teams should immediately re-start after cancelling a Sprint. One team I heard of was doing two week Sprints, cancelled due to a major tool problem, and then waited three months for the vendor to fix the problem before going back to Sprinting. Instead, they should have used their creative problem-solving skills to find a way to continue delivering value and restarted their Sprints immediately.

The Scrum Guide puts Sprint cancellation under the authority of the Product Owner:

A Sprint can be cancelled before the Sprint time-box is over. Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel the Sprint, although he or she may do so under influence from the stakeholders, the Development Team, or the Scrum Master.

It is important to note that older descriptions of Scrum will sometimes mention that the ScrumMaster or the Development Team can also cancel a Sprint. This is no longer part of the core definition of Scrum.

Cancelled Sprint Emotions

A cancelled Sprint can sometimes be emotionally challenging for a Scrum Team. There are three reasons for this difficulty:

  1. Cancelling a Sprint, particularly later on in the timebox means there’s a lot of work already in progress (and possibly done). The psychology of sunk costs comes into play: we’ve invested some much in the Sprint so far, let’s just keep going to see if we can “fix” it. Going against that impulse can be very difficult.
  2. A cancelled Sprint is an acknowledgement that the fundamental direction of the current Sprint is no longer the right thing to be doing. This can seem to be an insult to the team: why didn’t “you” get it right earlier? If there are certain people on the team who advocated strongly for the current set of work, they could take Sprint cancellation particularly hard.
  3. Cancelling a Sprint may require undoing technical work and may be complex. If team members have made changes that they are particularly proud of, they may resist undoing that work more than would be called for simply due to the time involved in undoing it.

Once people experience these emotional effects from a cancelled Sprint, they will want to be cautious to avoid them re-occuring. That sense of caution will lead people to make arguments to the effect of “let’s make sure when we start our next Sprint that we have everything right” or simply, “I don’t want to go through that again… we better get it right this time around.” In order for the ScrumMaster to avoid falling for these arguments, it is important for the ScrumMaster not to be a hands-on contributor to the work. In other words, to be emotionally detached from the work. Those arguments can be persuasive unless the ScrumMaster can remind the team about empiricism.  The ScrumMaster must always support the Product Owner if the product owner believes that a cancelled Sprint will lead to the best business outcomes.

Scrum is an empirical process that allows for “failure”. Of course, it probably helps to not call it that. Instead, a Scrum Team and the organization around it need to think of every Sprint as an experiment. There’s a good analogy here with the various stages of drug trials. When a company wants to research a new drug, the drug will go through various stages of experiments. The early stages of research are based on chemical reactions in the proverbial test tubes – laboratory experiments. Subsequent stages of research are often based on animal experiments. After that come human trials. At any stage if the drug in question is showing adverse effects outweighing the therapeutic effects, then the current stage is cancelled. Of course, the research done to that point is not a waste, but nor does it immediately result in a useful drug with net therapeutic effects. In Scrum, each Sprint is like a stage in the drug trials. If the work of the Sprint will not result in a net benefit, it only makes sense to cancel the work as soon as that information becomes obvious.

Waiting for Perfection

The pitfall, then, is that after a cancelled Sprint a team will feel pressure to wait until conditions are perfect before continuing on the next Sprint. Scrum does allow for the team to do a bit of a review of the reasons that the Sprint was cancelled, perhaps even to do a retrospective, and then start another Sprint planning meeting. The Sprint Planning meeting might be a bit longer than usual. The ScrumMaster does need to be sensitive to the needs of the team.

Cancelled Sprints and Synchronized Teams

One other factor may be a consideration: if the team is working with other teams on a larger-scale effort, there may be pressure to have all the teams with synchronized Sprints. For example, the Scaled Agile Framework emphasizes cadence and synchronization among multiple Scrum teams. In this case, a cancelled Sprint may mean that a team sits idle for a short time while they wait for the next synchronization point, as illustrated:

Cancelled Sprint in SAFe

This article is a follow-up article to the 24 Common Scrum Pitfalls written back in 2011.


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All Team Quality Standards Should Be Part of the Definition of “Done”

The other day a technology leader was asking questions as if he didn’t agree that things like pair programming and code review should be part of the Definition of “Done” because they are activities that don’t show up in a tangible way in the end product. But if these things are part of your quality standards, they should be included in the definition of “Done” because they inform the “right way” of getting things done. In other words, the Definition of “Done” is not merely a description of the “Done” state but also the way(s) of getting to “Done” – the “how” in terms of quality standards. In fact, if you look at most of any team’s definition of “Done”, a lot of it is QA activity, carried out either as a practice or as an operation that is automated. Every agile engineering practice is essentially a quality standard and as they become part of a team’s practice, should be included as part of the definition of “Done”. The leader’s question was “if we’re done and we didn’t do pair programming and pair programming is part of our definition of “Done”, then does that mean we’re not done?” Which is sort of a backwards question because if you are saying you’re done and you haven’t done pair programming, then by definition pair programming isn’t part of your definition of done. But there are teams out there who would never imagine themselves to be done without pair programming because pair programming is a standard that they see as being essential to delivering quality product.

Everything that a Scrum Development Team does to ensure quality should be part of their definition of “Done”. The definition of “Done” isn’t just a description of the final “Done” state of an increment of product. In fact, If that were true, then we should be asking why anything is part of the definition of “Done”. This is the whole problem that this artifact solves. If this were the case, the team could just say that they are done whenever they say they are done and never actually identify better ways of getting to done and establishing better standards. We could just say (and we did and still do), “there’s the software, it’s done,” the software itself being its own definition of “Done”.

On the contrary the definition of “Done” is what it means for something to be done properly. In other words, it is the artifact that captures the “better ways of developing software” that the team has uncovered and established as practice because their practices reflect their belief that “Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility” (Manifesto for Agile Software Development). The definition of “Done” is essentially about integrity—what is done every Sprint in order to be Agile and get things done better. When we say that testing is part of our definition of “Done”, that is our way of saying that as a team we have a shared understanding that it is better to test something before we say that it is done than to say that it’s done without testing it because without testing it we are not confident that it is done to our standards of quality. Otherwise, we would be content in just writing a bunch of code, seeing that it “works” on a workstation or in the development environment and pushing it into production as a “Done” feature with a high chance that there are a bunch of bugs or that it may even break the build.

This is similar to saying a building is “Done” without an inspection (activity/practice) that it meets certain safety standards or for a surgeon to say that he or she has done a good enough job of performing a surgical operation without monitoring the vital signs of the patient (partly automated, partly a human activity). Of course, this is false. The same logic holds true when we add other activities (automated or otherwise) that reflect more stringent quality standards around our products. The definition of “Done”,therefore, is partly made up of a set of activities that make up the standard quality practices of a team.

Professions have standards. For example, it is a standard practice for a surgeon to wash his or her hands between performing surgical operations. At one time it wasn’t. Much like TDD or pair programming, it was discovered as a better way to get a job done. In this day and age, we would not say that a surgeon had done a good job if he or she failed to carry out this standard practice. It would be considered preposterous for someone to say that they don’t care whether or not surgeons wash their hands between operations as long as the results are good. If a dying patient said to a surgeon, “don’t waste time washing your hands just cut me open and get right to it,” of course this would be dismissed as an untenable request. Regardless of whether or not the results of the surgery were satisfactory to the patient, we would consider it preposterous that a surgeon would not wash his or her hands because we know that this is statistically extremely risky, even criminal behaviour. We just know better. Hand washing was discovered, recognized as a better way of working, formalized as a standard and is now understood by even the least knowledgable members of society as an obvious part of the definition of “Done” of surgery. Similarly, there are some teams that would not push anything to production without TDD and automated tests. This is a quality standard and is therefore part of their definition of “Done”, because they understand that manual testing alone is extremely risky. And then there are some teams with standards that would make it unthinkable for them to push a feature that has not been developed with pair programming. For these teams, pair programming is a quality standard practice and therefore part of their definition of “Done”.

“As Scrum Teams mature,” reads the Scrum Guide, “it is expected that their definitions of “Done” will expand to include more stringent criteria for higher quality.” What else is pair programming, or any other agile engineering practice, if it is not a part of a team’s criteria for higher quality? Is pair programming not a more stringent criteria than, say, traditional code review? Therefore, any standard, be it a practice or an automated operation, that exists as part of the criteria for higher quality should be included as part of the definition of “Done”. If it’s not part of what it means for an increment of product to be “Done”—that is “done right”—then why are you doing it?


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Rant about Commitment – One of the Scrum Values

The voting for re-introducing the five values of Scrum into the Scrum Guide is heating up with some great discussion (debate?).  One person, Charles Bradley is providing some interesting arguments about why “commitment” should not be included or even changed to a different word.  I have posted a response.  I strongly believe that the word “commitment” is the right word.  Here’s the first paragraph of my response:

Hi Charles, although I appreciate your concerns about the word commitment, there is still huge support for adding the five values back to the Scrum Guide, including using that “bad” word. I would like to present to you an argument for the use of the word commitment by telling a story.

 

A long time ago I had a really good friend….

 

Check out all the discussion on the five values of Scrum and please comment or vote (or both!)


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Add the Scrum Values (back) into the Scrum Guide – Voting

Hi Everyone.  A Scrum Alliance colleague of mine mentioned that in a conversation with Jeff Sutherland (one of the authors of Scrum), Jeff suggested that the community could request and vote on a change to the Scrum Guide (the official description of Scrum) in order the add the values back to the guide.  The values are normally listed as focus, commitment, courage, openness and respect.  Please go and vote (and / or discuss) this on the Scrum Guides User Voice page.  Voting is super easy – you just need to sign in with Facebook.


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Scrum Alliance, Scrum.org and Scrum Inc. Announce Collaboration

My heartfelt congratulations on this important and historic event!  Scrum is one, again!

From the official announcement issued by Scrum Alliance:

SCRUM ORGANIZATIONS ANNOUNCE OFFICIAL
COLLABORATIVE ADOPTION OF SCRUM GUIDE

Scrum Alliance, Scrum.org, and Scrum Inc. announce the release and joint endorsement of a new community website, ScrumGuides.org. The new website is the official source of “The Scrum Guide, The Definitive Guide to Scrum: The Rules of the Game.”

 

Dr. Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber created Scrum and authored “The Scrum Guide” to ensure Scrum remains true to its core principles and values.

 

“The Scrum Guide is the canonical definition of Scrum. Ken and I have worked closely together for decades to keep it simple, clear, and, in the true spirit of Scrum, to include only what is absolutely necessary,” says Sutherland, CEO of Scrum Inc. “Scrum is a powerful tool to radically increase productivity. Every implementation of Scrum is different, as teams and organizations apply it within their context, but the fundamental framework always remains the same. For Scrum Alliance, Scrum.org, and Scrum Inc. to come together to recognize the central place the Scrum Guide holds will provide clarity to the hundreds of thousands of Scrum practitioners across the planet.”

 

The explosive growth of people and organizations using Scrum in recent years has led to some market confusion as to the precise definition of Scrum. The preeminent certifying bodies, Scrum Alliance and Scrum.org, coming together in support of a common definition of Scrum is a win for Scrum practitioners around the world.

 

“The pieces of Scrum are carefully fit to each other to yield the best possible results. This has taken years for Jeff and myself to achieve. Watch for new versions as we continue to refine,” said Ken Schwaber, founder of Scrum.org.

 

“It’s time for convergence in the Scrum community,” said Scrum.org’s operations chief David Starr. “Giving this clear explanation of Scrum clarifies the framework for the entire industry. We are pleased to support a shared and unambiguous source of truth defined by Scrum’s creators.”

 

Carol McEwan, Scrum Alliance Managing Director, said, “This makes the most sense for the Scrum community. The Scrum Guide is based on the principles on which Scrum was founded. It offers Scrum practitioners worldwide a common standard and understanding of the foundations of Scrum. This collaboration adds real value and can only benefit everyone practicing, or considering practicing, Scrum.”


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